AskDefine | Define abri

User Contributed Dictionary

French

Etymology

From abrier.

Pronunciation

  • /abʁi/

Noun

fr-noun m

Extensive Definition

Illyrian tribes or possibly or partly Illyrian tribes or tribes inhabiting lands known as Illyria.

Tribes

Illyrian

Abri

Abri were an Illyrian tribe.They could prepare mead, a wine from honey and were known to the Greeks for that method.

Albani

Albanoi were an Illyrian tribe.The first known occurrence of the word Albani as the name of an Illyrian tribe in what is now north-central Albania goes back to 130 AD, in a work of Ptolemy. Albanopolis of the Albani is a place located on the map of Ptolemy and also named on an ancient family epitaph at Scupi (near Skopje), which has been identified with the Zgardhesh hill-fort near Kruja in northern Albania. Arbanon is likely to be the name of a district - the plain of the Mat has been suggested - rather than a particular place. An indication of movement from higher altitudes in a much earlier period has been detected in the distribution of place-names ending in -esh that appears to derive from the Latin -ensis or -esis, between the Shkumbin and the Mat rivers, with a concentration between Elbasan and Kruja.It is not certain if the ancient city corresponds with later mentions of it.

Amantini

Amantini was the name of an Illyrian tribe.They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat.The Amantini were close to Sirmium but the tribe was probably present in southern areas as well due to the existence of a city name Amantia.

Andizetes

Andizetes, also referred to as Andisetes were a small Illyrian tribe that lived in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not much is known about this tribe except that it is found on the list of Illyrian tribes made by ancient Romans, against whom the Illyrians put up a heroic resistance, perhaps best portrayed in the last great Illyrian struggle for freedom-the legendary Baton's uprising.The personal name of Andes, popular among the Illyrians of southern Panonia and much of northern Dalmatia (roughly modern Bosnia and Herzegovina), as it seems, derived from the name of this tribe. Another variant of this widespread personal Illyrian name is Andis.There is also an ancient deity called Andinus, which may be related. They were Pannonians. They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule..

Ardiaei

Ardiaei, once an inland tribe, eventually settled on the Adriatic coast. The ancient geographer, Strabo, lists the Ardiaei as one of the three strongest tribes - the other two being the Autariatae and the Dardani. The whole of the mountainous country that stretches alongside Pannonia from the recess of the Adriatic as far as the Rhizonic Gulf and the land of the Ardiaei is Illyrian, falling as it does between the sea and the Pannonian tribes (Strabon, Geographika, 7. 5. 3).Their original homeland is said to have been around modern Neretva river , in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. In ancient times this river was known as Narenta/Naron/Narona, and the connotation with the name of an Illyrian tribe Narensii seems obvious. The Ardiaei were called by Romans "Vardiaei". Because they pestered the sea through their piratical bands, the Romans pushed them back from it into the interior and forced them to till the soil (Strabon, Geographika, 7. 5. 6).They drunk heavily and were seen as such by the Greeks. "Their country is rough and poor and not suited to a farming population, and therefore the tribe has been utterly ruined and in fact has almost been obliterated. And this is what befell the rest of the peoples in that part of the world; for those who were most powerful in earlier times were utterly humbled or were obliterated, as, for example, among the Galatae the Boii and the Scordistae, and among the Illyrians the Autariatae, Ardiaei, and Dardanii, and among the Thracians the Triballi; that is, they were reduced in warfare by one another at first and then later by the Ancient Macedonians and the Romans". The Ardiaei were enemies of the Autariatae for a long time over salt source.The Ardiaei had attained military might , particularly during the Kingdom of Illyria under the reign of king Agron, and later his widow Queen Teuta. Some historical accounts holds that King Agron helped , king Demetrius of Macedonia repel the invasion of Macedonia by the invading Aetolians.

Autariatae

Autariatae (or Autariates) were an Illyrian tribe that became prominent between the 6th and 4th centuries BC.

Azali

Azali was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Breuci

Breuci were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians. They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat.They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule. It is likely that the name of the north-eastern Bosnian city Brčko is derived from the name of this tribe. .

Bylliones

Bylliones was the name of an Illyrian tribe

Ceraunii

Ceraunii was the name of an Illyrian tribe.They lived close to the Pirustae in modern Montenegro.

Chelidones

Chelidones was the name meaning 'snail-men', of an Illyrian tribe.

Colapiani

Colapiani was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Daesitiates

Daesitiates were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is today Bosnia during the time of the Roman Republic. Along with the Maezaei, the Daesitiates belonged to the Pannonians. They were prominent from the end of the 4th century BC up until the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Evidence of their daily activities can be found in literary sources, as well as in the rich material finds that belong to the autochthonous Middle-Bosnian cultural group. Because the Daesitiates were present during Roman rule in the western Balkans, their name can be found in many inscriptions and historical works of ancient writers. During the 19th century, scientific interest in the Daesitiates materialized whereby research was focused in parts of Upper Bosnia. However, all research efforts have yet to provide a complete analysis of the Daesitiates. The Daesitiates were unquestionably one of the main components of the Illyrian ethno-cultural complex that stretched from the southern Adriatic to the Danube in the north. They specifically lived in the centre of the Illyrian West-Balkan and Pannonian world.
History The Daesitiates were originally part of an autochthonous process that followed the "Indo-Europeanization" of the Western Balkans and the wider Danube region. This process continued until the Middle-Bosnian cultural group of the late Bronze Age and Iron Age was formed. The Daesitiates also established complex political communities. This specific process peaked during a period of both Celtic tribal movements and cultural transitions of the Iron Age. This was primarily reflected through the establishment of the Daesitiates as a recognizable and functional polity. In the following centuries, the Daesitiates would form into a strong and secure community with identifiable political, social, and economic structures. During this period, the Daesitiates acquired an enviable level of cultural development due to their geographical position and their access to rich ore mines and quality land. the Daesitiates were tied to the parts of Upper Bosnia and, probably, to the region of the Lašva river valley. Since the Daesitiates were situated in the peripheral part of the Dinaric zone, they formed a "bridge" that connected the Adriatic coast to the Dinaric hinterland (i.e. the Mediterranean world with the Pannonian basin and the Danube region). After nearly three centuries of political independence, the Daesitiates (and their polity) were conquered by Roman Emperor Augustus. Afterwards, the Daesitiates were incorporated into the province of Illyricum and granted both administrative and territorial autonomy (i.e. civitas peregrini). Ultimately, the widening gap between the Roman government and its subjects in Illyricum led to the Great Illyrian revolt that began in the spring of 6 AD. The Daesitiates were the first to revolt under the leadership of Bato I and were soon joined by the Breuci. Other natives were recruited to fight against the Marcomanni while the rebellion swiftly overtook enormous areas of the western Balkans and the Danube region. The role of the Daesitiates in the rebellion was immense, which contributed to their ultimate disappearance. However, the continuity of their autochthonous development was ultimately broken whereby the Daesitiates underwent both urbanization and Romanization. Despite having suffered significant losses, the Daesitiates and their polity survived for a period of time in the form of the civitas peregrine. In the middle of the 1st century AD, the polity of the Daesitiates contained around 20,000 people. Ultimately, the Daesitiates were completely Romanized and by the beginning of the 3rd century AD, their existence as a unique social and political force disappeared. After its political transition into the Roman municipal system, Upper Bosnia reached the peak of its ancient development. In the beginning of the 7th century AD, the region once inhabited by the Daesitiates was exposed to the Slavic element. The symbiosis of these newly arrived peoples with the Illyrian natives and their traditions in Upper Bosnia contributed to the formation of medieval Bosnia during the Middle Ages. Cultural practices To this day, a large number of fortresses, villages, and settlements belonging to the Daesitiates have remained. Some of these remains have been partially excavated and a number of necropolises, grave constructions, and individual graves have also been discovered. Apart from material finds, these sites offer more evidence of the spiritual culture of the Daesitiates. The most important necropolis of the Daesitiates was found in Kamenjača near Breza. According to the material remains, the religious life of the Daesitiates was complex. The area of the Middle-Bosnian cultural group was, along with the neighbouring Glasinac culture, a centre for the origins and development of the West-Balkans geometrical style as an autochthonous artistic expression.

Dalmatae

Dalmatae (or Greek language Δελματοί) were an ancient Illyrian tribe.

Daors

Daors was the name of an Illyrian tribe.Another name of the tribe was Daversi.

Deramastae

Deraemestae was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Deuri

Deuri was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Dindari

Dindari was the name of an Illyriantribe.

Ditiones

Ditiones were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians].

Docleatae

Docleatae were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is now Montenegro. Their capital was Doclea (or Dioclea), and they are called after the town. They had settle west of the Morača river, up to Montenegro's present-day borders with Herzegovina. The Docleatae were prominent for their cheese, which was exported to various Roman provinces within the Roman Empire.

Enchelei

Enchelei was the name of an Illyrian tribe.Their name given by the Greeks meant eel-men(Greek language; "Εγχελείς").

Grabaei

Grabaei were a minor Illyrian group that lived around Lake Scutari.

Glintidiones

Glintidiones was the name of an Illyriantribe.

Maezaei

Maezaei were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians.

Melcumani

Melcumani were an Illyrian tribe.

Narensi

Narensi was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Parthini

Parthini or Partheni (Greek: , , , Strabo vii.; Appian, Illyr. 1; Dion Cass. xli. 49; Cic. in Pis. 40; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 11; Plin. iii. 26), were Illyrians of Epirus Nova who may be placed to the north in the neighborhood of Epidamnus, and, consequently, next to the Taulantii. They are often mentioned in the course of the war with Illyricum, 229 BCE, but as friends rather than foes of the Romans, having submitted at an early period to their arms. (Polyb. ii. 11; Livy xxix. 12.) After the death of Philip, king of Macedon, they appear to have been added to the dominions of Pleuratus, an Illyrian prince allied to the Romans. (Polyb. xviii. 30; Liv. xxx. 34, xliv. 30.) Their principal town was Parthus (, Steph. B. s. v.), which was taken by Caesar in the course of his campaign with Pompeius. (Caes. B.C. iii. 41.) The double-hilled Dimale, the strongest among the Illyrian places, with two citadels on two heights, connected by a wall (Polyb. iii. 18, vii. 9), was within their territory. There is no indication, however, of its precise situation, which was probably between Lissus and Epidamnus. Livy mentions (xxix. 12) two other fortesses: Eugenium and Bargulum.

Penestae

Penestae was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Pirustae

Pirustae were an Illyrian tribe that lived in modern Montenegro. According to some sources, they had also lived in territories outside modern-day Montenegro, but, the majority of archaeologists, including famous British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, the Pirustae had lived in northern Montenegro, around present-day Pljevlja and that they were prominent miners. Their prominence in mining has been seen in epigraphic monuments from Dacia's mining regions.

Selepitani

Selepitani was an Illyrian tribe located below the Lake Scutari.

Scirtati

Scirtari or Scirtones was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Segestani

Segestani were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians.

Taulanti

Taulanti (Greek Ταυλάντιοι) were one of the largest Illyrian tribes. According to Greek mythology Taulas (Tαύλας), one of the six sons of Illyrius, was the eponymous ancestor of the Taulanti.They lived on the Adriatic coast of Illyria (modern Albania), between the river Vjosa on the south and the city of Epidamnus (modern Durrës) on the north. This tribe played an important role in Illyrian history of the 4th-3rd centuries BC, when they ruled Illyrian kingdom, firstly established by Enchelleae. Approximately on the same land as Taulanti lived the Albanoi and Parthines tribes.In 335 BC, King Glaukias established the Taulanti dynasty in the Illyrian Kingdom. In 323 BC, Glaukias freed all the land which had been taken from Enchelleae by the Macedonians. Later, Illyrians capture Epidamnus and Apollonia, two major Greek cities founded in the 7th century BC.In 309 BC, Glaukias went to Epirus where Pyrrhus regained the throne.Bardylis Junior (Bardhyli i Ri), Glaukias' successor, had friendly relationship with Epirus, but it didn’t last long because Pyrrhus conquered all the land in the south of Shkumbin river.This policy was followed strictly by Monunius (280 BC), who became head of Epidamnus and made silver coins with his name. He achieved to consolidate the Illyrian Kingdom.The major cities of the Kingdom were Epidamnus, Apollonia, Damastion,Byllis, Albanopolis, Dimale, Skodra (Shkodër), Lissos (Lezhë), Meteon, Ulcinium (Ulqin), Rizon.

Labeates

Labeates was an Illyrian tribe that lived around Scodra.

Jasi

Jasi was the name of an Illyrian tribe.

Lopsi

Lopsi is the name of a (presumably) Illyrian tribe inhabiting the mountains along the eastern coast of the Adriatic before and during the Roman Empire, specifically present-day Velebit. The tribe was mentioned by Ptolemy in his Geographia, and after it was named one of the Roman cities on the coast, Lopsica (present day Sveti Juraj in Croatia).The name has survived to present day as the name of several villages on the Velebit, in the form "Lopci", as well as the family surname Lopac.

Pannonians

Pannonians (lang-la Pannonii) was a common name for a group of culturaly similar tribes cognate to Illyrians, who inhabited the southern part of what was later known as Roman province of Pannonia, south of the river Drava (), and the northern part of the future Roman province of Dalmatia.
History
In the 2nd century BC, the Segestani, one of the Pannonian tribes inhabiting the area around Segesta (modern Sisak in Croatia), were attacked without lasting success by Roman consuls L. Aurelius Cotta and an unidentified Cornelius. In 35 BC, the Segestani were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sisak). The rest of the Pannonians were not, however, definitely subdued until 9 BC, when their lands were incorporated into the province of Illyricum after the bellum Pannonicum, conducted by the future emperor Tiberius.
In AD 6, the Pannonians, together with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolted, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign which lasted for three years. Leaders of the rebellion were Bato (of the Breuci tribe) and Pinnes from Pannonia and another Baton (of the Daesitiates) from Dalmatia. After the rebellion was crushed in 9 AD, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50.
Pannonian tribes
The Pannonian tribes inhabited the area between the river Drava and the Dalmatian coast. Archaeology and onomastics shows that they were culturally different from southern Illyrians, Iapodes, and La Tene peoples commonly known as the Celts. However, there are some cultural similarities between the Pannonians and Dalmatians. Many of the Pannonians lived in areas with rich iron ore deposits, so that iron mining and production was an important part of their economy before and after the Roman conquest. The Pannonians did not have settlements of importance in pre-Roman times, apart from Segestica (Siscia). Ancient sources (Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Appian of Alexadria) mention few of the Pannonian tribes by name, and historians and archaeologists located some of them. The most significant were:
  • Breuci (area between the rivers Sava and Drava)
  • Daesitiates (central Bosnia)
  • Pirustae (northern Montenegro)
  • Segestani (around river Kolpa)
  • Maezaei (northwest Bosnia - roughly modern Bosanska Krajina without Bihać)
  • Ditiones (western Bosnia)

Phrygian

Celtic

Independent

Venetic

Further reading

  • Z. Marić, ‘Problemes des limites septentrionales du territoire illyrien’ in: A. Benac, Symposium sur la delimitation Territoriale et chronologique des Illyriens a l’epoque Prehistorique, Sarajevo 1964, 177-213 (material culture).
  • I. Bojanovski, Bosnie et Herzegovine a l’epoque antique (in Serbo-Croatian of the time),Sarajevo, 1988 (overview).
  • M. Šašel-Kos, Appian and Illyricum, Ljubljana, 2005, 375 ff. (with most up to date bibliography).

References

abri in Hungarian: Pannonok
abri in Italian: Pannoni
abri in Swedish: Albanoi
abri in Catalan: Vardeis
abri in Swedish: Ardiaei
abri in Croatian: Dalmati
abri in Catalan: Taulantis
abri in German: Taulantier
abri in Italian: Taulanti
abri in Persian: تبارهای ایلیریان
abri in Portuguese: Lista de tribos ilírias
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